The science behind stunning sunsets and rainbows between clouds

The sun just reflects through the little water vapour, generally up the top of the clouds, or ice crystals.”These vapour drops are especially tiny, meaning the sunlight that diffracts off them is especially spread out. Photo:
Sandwiched between two clouds, this rainbow was the result of tiny ice particles and water vapour in the atmosphere. These allow for fascinating variations of colour.Got it. (Supplied: Fiona Prentice)
“It’s called iridescence or irisation,” he said.”It’s the same as a rainbow, basically. They are especially common after thunderstorms.It is a lot to take in, but Mr Browne said all this knowledge enhanced rather than distracted from his enjoyment of a wet season sunset.”If I’m sitting there enjoying the sunset, I’m thinking about all the physical processes that take place in order for me to see that.”It’s just little scientific tidbits that just pop into my head while I’m enjoying my feed down at Mindil.” (ABC Open Contributor: Jonathan)
But as the Sun sets, and the path those blue wavelengths travel to reach our eyes becomes up to 40 times longer, a corresponding shift in colour takes place.”Think of it as an extinction of the blue colour as the light travels through the atmosphere,” Mr Browne explained.”All of that blue light’s eliminated as far as our eyes can see and we end up with a very red sunset.”This is why the sky appears bluest at solar noon, when the Sun’s rays are closest to us and blue wavelengths are only travelling the shortest distance. So what’s behind the rainbow in the clouds?The answer to Sunday’s rainbow cloud came from talkback caller Mick, who told ABC Radio Darwin’s Richard Margetson that such occurrences were somewhat common but fleeting in Darwin’s skies. It’s a vision of pure glory: thick banks of cloud and a setting sun lighting up the sky in colours from pastel pink to chimney red.In Darwin’s steamy wet season, it is not uncommon to find people gazing outwards from camp chairs on the shoreline, where the open harbour mouth offers uninterrupted views of these vivid light displays over rippled water. And on Sunday night locals were treated to another atmospheric phenomenon when a rainbow briefly appeared between layers of stormy cloud.Unsurprisingly, there is much more to these vivid vistas than meet the eye.”They’re very visually pleasing but the science behind it is quite complex,” meteorologist Jackson Browne said.Mr Browne, who said he had always had an inquisitive, curious mind, began to “tease apart what makes a sunset tick” while studying to become a meteorologist.”It brings together the science of the very, very small — down to the atomic level — up to the size of the distance between here and the Sun.”The time that that light ray has taken from the centre of the Sun is 50,000 years, and once it leaves the Sun’s surface it’s another eight-and-a-half minutes to us.”And then it does all sorts of fantastic stuff once it travels through the atmosphere and eventually reaches the eyeball.” Red sky at nightOnce this light enters the atmosphere, certain gases begin to block parts of the spectrum of wavelengths that sunlight carries.These wavelengths are associated with different colours, meaning some are filtered out before we even see them. Photo:
Flocks of locals take to Darwin’s shoreline each afternoon to watch the spectacular colours on display. Layers of cloud a ‘canvas for the sunset to project on’So why are spectacular sunsets so common during the wet season?According to Mr Browne, one reason is that the frequent thunderstorms and accompanying rain have a way of vacuuming pollutants out of the lower parts of the atmosphere.”Particulates — when I talk about particulates I mean dust and haze and smoke — can tend to get lifted up into the atmosphere,” he said.”So if you get a thunderstorm maybe two hours before the sunset and it just cleanses the atmospheric column, so to speak, when you get that sunset coming through it’ll be really quite vibrant.”Additionally, clouds are much friendlier to the wavelengths that produce those vivid reds.”It reflects all colours equally, so having mid to upper-level cloud can really act as a canvas for the sunset to project on.”Another legacy of a good storm is the mammatus cloud, a pouch-like formation often attached to larger clouds after a thunderstorm. Others are invisible to the human eye.”When it comes down to visible wavelengths — what you and I can see — the light of a shorter wavelength — so blue — interacts more strongly with the atmosphere and it tends to get scattered away from that light path,” Mr Browne said.
Map:
Darwin 0800
ABC Radio Darwin

By Jesse Thompson

Posted

January 15, 2018 15:11:14

Video: Darwin locals witness iridescence above the clouds

(ABC News)

Famous Dex – All Star Lyrics

[Intro]
What
Glohan, you need to grow up
Fucking hell, man
Roll some weed out there, you dig? Hah, fake hoe, huh, what, yeah, Dexter Mike D, you can’t do this to ’em
Ha
[Hook]
Yeah, ooh, hah (Oh man God damn)
Niggas they fake, they fu
Yeah, ooh, hah
Niggas they fake, they fu
What, ooh, huh
You know what I’m saying
(Dexter, woah, oh man god damn, woah)
[Verse 1]
Niggas they fake, they fu
I might just fuck on your boo
Look at my pockets they blue
I used to trap out the school
Now I be getting that money
Lil bitch all on me, your baby, my honey
(Hold on a little bit)
[Verse 2]
Yeah, huh, get back, lil bitch
Diamonds on my wrist, that’s a fact, lil bitch
Diamonds on my neck cost racks, lil bitch
Hop in the back of the back, lil bitch
Ooh, huh, foreign car
Huh, bad bitch, she a pornstar
She wanna geek off a yellow bar
I feed her a yellow bar
What, huh, yeah, she a slut
Huh, bankroll slap her on the butt
Huh, keep me a 30 by my gut
These niggas hating for what, huh
Hold on, huh, yeah
These niggas hating for what, huh
Keep me a 30 by my gut
Run up on me, swear to God, shootin’ stuff
[Bridge]
Know what I’m saying
Right now
Huh, Dexter
[Hook 2]
Ooh, huh, run up on me, I’ma shoot though
Run up on me, I’ma shoot though
Run up on me, I’ma shoot though
Catch your lil bitch, man I swear she a cute hoe, what, yeah
[Outro]
Yeah, uh Dexter
Hmm, no, I like how this beat go, you dig?

Pink Floyd – The Scarecrow Lyrics

[Verse 1]
The black and green scarecrow as everyone knows
Stood with a bird on his hat and straw everywhere
He didn’t care
[Hook]
He stood in a field where barley grows
[Verse 2]
His head did no thinking
His arms didn’t move except when the wind cut up
Rough and mice ran around on the ground
[Hook]
He stood in a field where barley grows
[Verse 3]
The black and green scarecrow is sadder than me
But now he’s resigned to his fate
‘Cause life’s not unkind – he doesn’t mind
[Hook]
He stood in a field where barley grows

Miguel – Caramelo Duro (English Translation) Lyrics

[Intro]
Sweet, sweet, sweet, sweet
[Verse 1]
Jaw Breaker to my demise, oh yeah (oh la la la la la)
Blood sugar I feel it rise, oh (oh la la la la la)
Got that flavor, yeah, that’s something you can’t buy
What are you made of, yeah
That’s something that I like (oh la la la la la)
Maybe now and later, hour glass, sour patch
That pink starburst on my brain
Running through your candy lane, yeah
[Chorus]
Hard candy, let me drive you crazy
Very clean, how pure, I won’t leave you alone
Gift me a little bit of sugar
Gift me a little bit of sugar
[Verse 2]
A little bit of flavor (a little bit of flavor)
That’s all I need
(That’s all I need babe, that’s all I need babe)
I will see you love’s deepness
(To the depths of your love, your love)
If you come with me
(Should come my way babe, should come my way babe)
Now and later, hour glass, sour patch
Put that pink starburst on my brain
Running through your candy lane
[Chorus]
Hard candy, let me drive you crazy
Very clean, how pure, I won’t leave you alone
Gift me a little bit of sugar
Gift me a little bit of sugar
Gift me a little bit of sugar
Gift me a little bit of sugar
Sweet
[Bridge]
Sugar and I sweat, if it has a good flavor and a dirty mind, and a dirty mind (sweet, sweet)
Sugar and I sweat, if it has a good flavor and a dirty mind, and a dirty mind (sweet, sweet)
[Chorus]
Hard candy, let me drive you crazy
Very clean, how pure, I won’t leave you alone
Gift me a little bit of sugar
Gift me a little bit of sugar
Hard candy, let me drive you crazy
Very clean, how pure, I won’t leave you alone
Gift me a little bit of sugar
Gift me a little bit of sugar
Hard candy, let me drive you crazy
Very clean, how pure, I won’t leave you alone
Gift me a little bit of sugar
Gift me a little bit of sugar
[Outro]
Sweet, sweet, sweet, sweet, sweet

YFN Lucci – Street Kings Lyrics

[Hook: YFN Lucci]
Uh, young street nigga tryin’ make some millions
I know you hear me but you gotta feel me
These niggas talk about it but they never did shit
And we ain’t really smelling that shit
When you made it out the slums then you the trillest
Running with yo’ day ones, yeah, you the realest
Uh, I know you hear me but you gotta feel me
Young street nigga tryin’ make some millions [Hook: YFN Lucci]
Uh, young street nigga tryin’ make some millions
I know you hear me but you gotta feel me
These niggas talk about it but they never did shit
And we ain’t really smelling that shit
When you made it out the slums then you the trillest
Running with yo’ day ones, yeah, you the realest
Uh, I know you hear me but you gotta feel me
Young street nigga tryin’ make some millions
[Verse 1: YFN Lucci]
Uh, know I’m from the projects
In the hood know I still got on all my shit
100k on my neck
Die for my respect
Tryin’ ride on the kid, fuck around and wreck
Play you, die, you next
Uh, true number one got ’em upset
I’ve been on my young fly shit since a lil’ jet, true shit
A whole lot of broomsticks what we move with
Don’t be jumping in shit you ain’t got nothin’ to do with
Sweep yo’ block like a house sweep, y’all all sweet
Never been the type to call all beef, don’t call me
Nigga talkin’ ’bout he gon’ off me, they lost me
They tryin’ do me like Jeezy, they tryin’ cross me
I’ma give a nigga the full clip ’til it’s all E
After bloodshed ain’t no sorry, I’m sorry
We was all broke now we all kings
Gotta get the fuck up out the hood by any means
We all G’s
[Hook: YFN Lucci]
Uh, young street nigga tryin’ make some millions
I know you hear me but you gotta feel me
These niggas talk about it but they never did shit
And we ain’t really smelling that shit
When you made it out the slums then you the trillest
Running with yo’ day ones, yeah, you the realest
Uh, I know you hear me but you gotta feel me
Young street nigga tryin’ make some millions
[Verse 2: Meek Mill]
Shout out my niggas that stayed down
That’s why they still with me I came up
Got some money and look what they sayin’ now
But they tell you them niggas stand up, I manned up
And I turned a dollar to a thousand, turned a thousand to a million, moved my mom’s to public housing
Had to put her in that mansion, for the hood I got a Audi
And they tell me that I’m losin’, man you niggas fuckin’ wildin’
When they killed Lil’ Snupe, I took a L
Young trap niggas from the bottom, we prevailed
We had got expelled before they taught us how to spell
We ain’t never go to math but knew them numbers on that scale
Busting’ bricks sellin’ bails, I ain’t never tell
Only thing a nigga takin’ from me is a shell
Hood of broken dreams, we was to raising hell
If you was from my hood, then you would never get a cell
Fuck nigga!